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fearsomer complicated tangle of historical and social factors, but a central strand derives trom the centuries-old tradition of anti-Catholicism which sparked the ‘Glorlous Revolution’ oi 1688, when William of Orange (King Billy) ousted the Catholic James Il/Vli trom the throne.

I The Battle at the Boyne James didn‘t abandon his claim to the crown, however, and in 1689 led an uprising in Ireland, which ended in defeat by William‘s army at the Boyne on July 12 1690— the most important date in the Orange calendar. I No Surrender The Unionist battle-cry originated during the siege of (London)derry in 1689, when the Protestants defended the city against James‘s army from April to July. The besieging army fired a hollow cannonball containing terms for surrender over the city walls, only for the Protestants to send it back with their blunt reply inside: No Surrender.

I Sectarianlsm and Football The Celtic/Rangers (and, to a slightly lesser extent, Hibs/Hearts) rivalry is the major outlet for Scottish sectarian sentiment, apart from marches themselves. It stems from Celtic‘s origins as a charitable recreation club, set up in 1888 by two

'l Catholic brothers for the Glasgow poor

“The List 12—25 July 1991

Modem-day sectarianism arises irom a


(Celtic and their fans are still referred to as ‘the Beggars’). At the time, this class included a high proportion oflrish Catholics, peasant farmers who had emigrated to escape the Potato Famine, and Celtic was widely regarded as a Catholic organisation from the outset. A few years later, Rangers was set up asthe ‘official’ Glasgow football team. The implicit opposition to Celtic quickly became explicit, and the religious difference provided an easy focus for hostility.

Unlike Rangers, Celtic have always included players of both denominations, although Rangers boldly broke with tradition last year when they signed Mo Johnston, not only a Catholic but a former Celtic player. This led to mass burnings of season tickets and defection from supporters' clubs by Rangers diehards, but the Ibrox management insist that the no-Catholics rule has gone for good.

Some aspects of the Old Firm tradition are no joke, such as the match in 1975 which was accompanied by two attempted murders, nine stabbings, two cleaver attacks, one axe attack and thirty-five common assaults, all football-related. On the other hand, there has always been a fair amount of self-mocking humour involved, such as the MoJo jokes which began circulating almost within hours of his being signed (a Catholic woman gave birth to quads and the irate father named them Eenie, Meenie, Minie and Pat). By the end of the season, Johnston had been named player of the year by the Govan True Blues supporters‘ club.

I The Blue and the Green (and the Orange) Blue is traditionally the colour of Protestant patriotism, taken from both the Saltire and the Union Jack; green comes from the Emerald Isle‘s national hue, and from the Irish tricolour. Green cars parked along the route of Orange Walks

are towed away for their own safety; Ibrox directors‘ snooker tables are said to be covered in blue baize. The bright orange paint-jobs on Glasgow buses are widely believed to be non-accidental; there have been efforts in recent years to have them resprayed a more neutral shade.

I Traditions, rituals, slogans, paraphemalla Much of the factual history behind sectarianism is little-known today, with many aspects now acting primarily as symbols or rallying cries.

I The lied Hand oi Ulster This favourite Orange image comes from the legend of two men, a Catholic and a Protestant, racing towards the Six Counties; whoever won the race would win the land. They were approaching the finish when the Protestant, who was lagging behind, chopped off his hand and threw it so it landed ahead of the Catholic, thereby touching Ulster soil first. The Red Hand now appears on anything from tattoos to tea towels.

I Breaking the ranks No one is allowed to walk across an Orange march - this is known as breaking the ranks, and is believed to be extremely unlucky for the Unionist cause. Marshals patrol the edges of marches to prevent anyone nipping through, and have been known to get pretty physical with those who try.

I Dress code The dark suits, bowler hats and rolled umbrellas sported by senior lodge members stem from the fact that Protestants in both Ulster and Scotland have historically enjoyed higher incomes and class status they were the skilled industrial workers, while Irish Catholic peasant immigrants found it difficult to move up the social ladder, largely thanks to prejudice and discrimination. Otherwise, on an Orange Walk, anything emblazoned with a King Billy, a Red Hand, a Union Jack will do, as will Rangers gear.

I The black velvet-coated gentleman is toasted at Republican gatherings a tribute to the mole that dug the hole that tripped King Billy‘s horse in Richmond Park, leading to the King‘sdeath.

I Tim The slang term for Catholics comes from Tim Malloy, the generic name used for Irish Catholic immigrants to Glasgow, and is now associated with Celtic. as in ‘For ever and ever we‘ll follow the boys/ The Glasgow Celtic, the Tim Malloys.‘

I Why Don't Rangers Sign A Catholic was the title of a late-70s single by Pope Paul and the Romans, also known as the Bollock Brothers, who included Johnny Rotten‘s brother and the man himselfin the background. It's now a highly prized collectors‘ item among punk aficionados. I Two men are walking past a synagogue in Ballast/Glasgow. One of them asks the other what the building is. ‘lt‘s a synagogue,‘ comes the reply. ‘You know. a church for Jews.‘ The first man thinks for a moment, then asks ‘Arc they Protestant Jews or Catholic Jews?‘.

I Billy the Orangeman is about to die, so he calls for a priest and asks to be converted to Catholicism. ‘What did you do that for?‘ asks his confused friend. ‘Well .' says Billy. ‘I thought if] had to go, I‘d rather go as one of them than one of us.‘

The symbolic, flag-oflconvenience nature of much sectarian posturing is neatly demonstrated by the fact that when Rangers fans go to lbrox, they‘ll carry a Union Jack and sing along to the national anthem, but when they go to watch Scotland, they‘ll take a Saltire and boo God Save the Queen. However, anti-Catholicism has always enjoyed a fair degree of respectability and therefore a considerable amount of power - after all, to bring it back to the home life ofourown dear Queen, the British monarch is still constitutionally forbidden to either be, or marry, a Roman Catholic. (Sue Wilson)